Want to know how to start growing marijuana at home? You may have noticed that more and more people are growing their own marijuana. Both for medicinal purposes and for recreational use. How to grow cannabis, anyway?
Cannabis is not a plant like any other. In fact it is, but it needs some special care so that everything goes well, both when planting and to ensure the safety of those who grow it.
And to make good crops of really resinous, quality flowers, quite different from pressed, you need to learn how to grow marijuana. Shall we do it together? This complete text will bring you everything you need to start cultivating.
Drug Laws in Brazil – Law 11.343 of 2006
Is it prohibited to grow cannabis in Brazil? Yes, it is! But according to the Drug Law in force in the country, growers must be classified as users, in article 28 of the law, when the cultivation of marijuana is for personal use.
But unfortunately this law is not always applied correctly. Therefore, many growers who are caught growing marijuana end up having to answer under Article 33 as well, although it is not the right thing to do. That is why it is very important to know the grower’s right .
Nowadays, it is also possible to get a habeas corpus to do medicinal cultivation. But not only can the procedural costs be very expensive, but you will also need to have your plants already growing in order to be able to file a habeas corpus petition.
Therefore, it is essential to know this when it comes time to cultivate. Hiding the plants and grow is very important to avoid taking unnecessary risks.
Basic guide to growing marijuana
- The secret of success is the secret. Don’t tell! : if you want to grow marijuana, the main rule is not to tell anyone about it. Keep your mouth shut, no matter how tempting it may be to tell someone about it.
- Telling friends or acquaintances will only expose your grow to problems, and this is an art that is done in silence.
- Beware of the smell: growing marijuana gives off a smell. Plants in bloom smell a lot and this can lead to problems. An activated carbon filter is an absolute necessity for indoor cultivation.
- Don’t sell your marijuana: if you grow it for your own consumption you should stick to that and not sell anything. Not even giving away your marijuana. This can lead to an arrest for trafficking, even with a few plants, if the sale is proven. The motto is planting. not to buy.
How to grow marijuana? Indoor or outdoor growing?
The first step for those who want to start growing marijuana is to plan your grow space.
It is possible to grow marijuana outdoors, in the open, like in the courtyard of your house. But you can also plant in closets, bathrooms, or even greenhouse growing, which is indoor marijuana growing.
The important thing is to make sure that the plants receive the essential elements to develop: light, water, air, and a good soil with nutrients (substrate).
Here are two ways to grow your own cannabis:
It is more discreet because it is indoors. It has the advantage that it is possible to control the time the plants are exposed to light, making the photoperiod correct and providing the ideal temperature they need.
Indoor cultivation requires greater investment in equipment and with the monthly electricity bill.
It is cheaper, because the plants will take advantage of the sunlight to develop. It does not require the use of lamps, reflectors, and other equipment.
If you have the space, it is possible to grow huge outdoor plants, with great yields. It is important to watch out for neighbors and other visitors in this case, as the plants are more exposed.
If you still have any doubts about which one is right for you, check out all the differences between indoor and outdoor growing.
How much space do I need for indoor cultivation?
This question is very often asked: how big should the greenhouse be? And the great truth is that for this there is no guide. This will depend on how much you want to smoke.
The size of the planting depends on this and consequently on how many little plants you will have. Most growing greenhouses have square or rectangular areas, such as 60x60cm, 80x80cm, 100x100cm etc.
But the truth is that a crop can be much bigger than that or also much smaller. It depends on the grower. There are crops in small spaces like PC Grows and crops in whole rooms.
The table below lists the area dimensions for typical grow stalls and how many grams of dried marijuana can be achieved on average per planting.
Here are some suggested sizes
|XXS||30x30x60cm||1||10-30g||Consumo bem baixo em espaços bem pequenos.|
|S||60x60x160cm||4||75-150g||Consumo baixo para médio|
|XL||120x120x200cm||12-15||400-800g||Consumo elevado demais para uma pessoa. Só se o cultivo for para mais pessoas.|
|XXL||240x120x240cm||24-30||800-1600g||Um cultivo e uma colheita desse tamanho pode trazer sérios riscos|
|XXXL||240x240x200cm||48-60||1600-3200g||Você realmente precisa de tanta maconha de uma só vez? É melhor dividir o cultivo em partes.|
Our recommendation: For most home growers, one or two greenhouses (VEGA and FLORA) of 60x60cm or 80x80cm can be an ideal choice for those who live in a house or apartment and will leave the greenhouse in a particular room.
Where and how to grow marijuana at home
Now that you know that a crop should be hidden, it is important to know where it will be installed. Whether in a greenhouse, closet, empty room, or in the yard, the most important criteria are temperature, humidity, and air exchange within that environment. And of course, room for lighting.
Basically, it must be a completely insulated space so that the temperature and humidity are not only stable, but also in the appropriate range somewhere between 18 and 26°C.
The greenhouse or growing environment must also have a constant exchange of air for the plants. If you have a bathroom or extra room at home, you can do everything in there.
But if you can only set up an indoor greenhouse in your bedroom or even a closet it’s fine. As long as it is in a room where no one has access but the grower.
But of course, the size of the space alone will not determine how much you will harvest. You need to know how to make a cannabis crop yield, with pruning, proper substrate, correct lighting, and everything that goes into growing a crop.
What do I need to grow marijuana?
It is as we always say: growing marijuana at home requires equipment that simulates an outdoor environment within a closed environment.
This means that you need more than just a greenhouse, closet, or room. The plants will need lamps, a charcoal filter to eliminate the smell we talked about, ventilation, pots, substrates, and other items.
- Growing greenhouse or cabinet. Or that the plants are in an enclosed environment, even if it is an entire room of the house.
- Adequate and strong lighting. This can be done with HPS, HQI lamps, or also with LED panels.
- Charcoal filter to eliminate the smell.
- Exhaust and fan for the smell to circulate and change.
- Substrate with nutrients suitable for growing marijuana, rich in NPK.
- Pots of different sizes or at least two sizes so that the plants, can be transplanted and have more space at different stages of their life cycle.
- Meters: temperature and humidity meters such as thermometer/hygrometer. And pH and EC meters for measuring water or fertilization.
- At harvest time: microscope/pocket magnifier, harvesting shears, storage container
MAY BE GOOD TO HAVE DEPENDING ON THE REQUIREMENTS :
Dehumidifier: if the humidity is permanently too high (e.g. in summer / autumn)
Humidifier : if the humidity is too low (e.g. in winter)
Neem Oil For pest problems.
Organic or mineral cultivation: what is the difference
When starting to cultivate, you also need to choose whether to grow with organic or mineral soil and fertilizers. Organic can be a little more complicated for beginners.
In an organic (biological) soil there is active soil life, consisting of so-called effective microorganisms (EM). These need to be “supplied” (organically fertilized), since the nutrients needed by the plant are released through its excretions .
In this case, meticulous control of pH and EC is saved, because the soil here has a better buffering effect and the organic salts cannot over-fertilize the plant.
In a soil fertilized with (synthetic) minerals, there is no living soil. Most fertilizers used by growers are like this.
The nutrients are available in a form that can be used immediately and are absorbed by the plant without hindrance.
The disadvantage of mineral cultivation is the risk of over-fertilization, the so-called overfert, which can end up “roasting the plants”. That is why in cultivation like this one must pay attention to the dosage in each fertilization, but also meticulously control the pH and EC values.
SEE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH:
- Overfert is hard to happen.
- Requires less pH / EC control
- May attract more pests
- The grass can get tastier.
- No flush required.
- Risk of over-fertilization,
- Required to control pH / EC levels
- Lower risk of pests,
- It needs flushing before harvest for better flavor and to eliminate fertilization.
Basic knowledge for growing marijuana
After setting up the grow and choosing the type of cultivation you are going to start, the ideal is to go after the knowledge to make it work.
Growing marijuana at home requires attention to a number of factors that we will mention below and that must be controlled in the cultivation.
- Adequate lighting for growth. You need to understand how many lumens the lamps emit to have a basis.
- Temperature must be checked frequently
- pH value and EC value: relevant for nutrient uptake
- Watering: you need to know when your plants need water. Many beginners make the mistake of over-drowning them.
- Fertilization: Correct fertilization is necessary to avoid overfertilization or leaving the plants with a strong taste.
- Pests: it is necessary to prevent them and know how to fight them.
- Nutritional problems: with knowledge it is possible to identify problems in plants that will manifest themselves on the leaves or in other ways. These problems can be very varied.
What is the difference: Indica, Sativa or Hybrid
Before you plant marijuana and do the seed germination, you must choose a cannabis species and this decision can be according to your goals.
They can be Indica, Sativa or Hybrid .
See which are the main marijuana species to grow at home:
Cannabis Sativa – These are indicated for those who want euphoric, energetic, but light effects. It does not cause sleepiness and can be consumed during the day without affecting your routine. It is ideal for those who need THC. The plant can be identified by being tall with thin leaves and fine flowers.
Cannabis Indica – These are indicated for those who want a relaxing and sleepy feeling, useful as a tranquilizer. Therefore, it is ideal for those who have sleep disorders or need cannabidiol (CBD). The plant is usually low, with broad leaves and large flowers.
Hybrids – As the name says, they are hybrid plants, a mixture of the two previous species. Therefore, the feeling is relaxing and euphoric.
If you cannot choose the species you will have to select the seeds from your press. It is possible to select good seeds in the press and many people start that way.
Which marijuana seed to choose to grow?
Marijuana seeds can be bought from seed banks and they can also be divided into categories.
There are regular and feminized seeds, which are photoperiod seeds. And there are automatic seeds. As for the pressed seeds, the prenseeds can be either regular or auto, since you can’t know the provenance.
Regular marijuana seeds
Regular marijuana seeds are the most sought after because they are usually well-stabilized and strong genetics. They have this name because it is not possible to determine their sex beforehand.
Regular seeds have a 50% chance of being male and a 50% chance of being female. Therefore, those who grow regular plants need to wait to know if the plant will be female.
Regulars arise from the crossing between a male and a female plant.
Feminized marijuana seeds
Those who grow marijuana want the flowers. And the ones that give the flowers are the female plants, as we will see next.
To facilitate this there are feminized marijuana seeds, which are those that are 100%, or at least 99%, certain to produce flowering female plants.
Feminized seeds are sold in seed banks around the world and the main advantage of them is to know the sex beforehand.
Automatic marijuana seeds
Auto-seed plants will not flower with the change in the light cycle, known as the photoperiod. They will do this automatically and according to their natural development. That is why they can grow less.
Automatic seeds may be less potent, but they are good for those who want to grow without much concern for photoperiod or for those with small space.
Pressed seed: The prenseeds
As we talked about earlier, pressed seeds can also be healthy and good to start with. But it is hard to know whether they will be regular or automatic.
The prenseeds are the seeds that can be selected when dichavarating the pressed for smoking. Choose the ones with fewer cracks and darker. Give it a light squeeze to make sure it doesn’t break.
Sex of marijuana: identifying a male or female plant?
Besides choosing the species of your plant, it is important to be aware of whether your plant will be male or female.
You want to grow the female plants, but you won’t have a way to choose that at the very beginning.
Unless you are already growing with a feminized seed.
Otherwise, you will have to wait for it to show its sex and hope it is female, since it is the females that give the flowers full of trichomes and pistils. The male plants serve to fertilize, but do not produce flowers.
When your crop is in its 4th week or so, observe the following characteristics of the plants:
Female Plant – These are the ones that have pistils at their base, which are white hairs between the nodes.
Male Plant – These are easier to identify, because they have “little balls” at their bases, instead of white hairs.
How to germinate marijuana seeds
After selecting your species and seeds for growing marijuana outdoors or indoors, it is time to germinate your seed. This is the easiest step in the process.
You can do germination in several ways, including the most common way is to grow marijuana from the germinated seed on paper towel, for example.
When you can see the white, root-like rootlets on the seed, it is time to transfer it to a pot.
At this stage, there is not much secret. You can transfer the seed to a large pot where it will grow over the next few months, or to a small pot if you don’t have a larger container.
If you choose the small pot, you will need to transplant your herb into larger pots as the marijuana grows.
How to choose the substrate for growing marijuana at home?
Now you must be asking yourself: after germinating, what to do with the marijuana? Now is the time to transplant, so let’s choose the soil used.
The substrate for growing marijuana is a little different from the black earth that is usually used for other plants.
This common soil may work, but it will not guarantee that the plants will develop to the maximum they should, for lack of some elements and nutrients.
Therefore, when it comes to choosing the substrate, it is good to understand a little more about them, because each grower usually has his or her preference in this case.
The best substrates for growing cannabis can be organic or inert. And they can also be a mixture of several nutrients, as well as a predominance of one, as is the case with coconut fiber crops, which is growing a lot among growers.
If you still have questions on the subject, watch our video below on how to choose the soil to grow cannabis. Then, continue reading the article to continue your step-by-step on how to grow marijuana.
Essential Nutrients for Growing Marijuana – NPK
Now that you have learned all the steps of the cannabis life cycle, check out some extra tips for starting your home cultivation safely and ensuring healthy plants:
If you are starting to grow marijuana now you will come across the acronym NPK, which refers to the nutrients: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K).
Nitrogen is crucial for chlorophyll, the molecule responsible for the photosynthesis of marijuana. Therefore, this element is fundamental for the development of the stems and leaves of your herb. If your plant is growing slowly, it is probably low in nitrogen.
Phosphorus is responsible for the plant’s root development, that is, the roots. It helps create sugars and starches, and is essential to ensure larger flowers.
Potassium, on the other hand, is essential to ensure the strength and endurance of marijuana. Therefore, invest in potassium-rich nutrients from the very beginning to strengthen it. We do not recommend giving banana tea to the plant.
Optimum temperature for growing Cannabis
Marijuana is a plant that requires constant temperature, and if you want to be able to grow a quality herb, whether indoor or outdoor, you have to worry about the temperature and humidity of the environment.
Ideally, the grow temperature should never exceed 30º C. Some growers usually vary the temperature according to the photoperiod, but the most common is to maintain a standard climate for the girls, something around 22ºC to 26ºC.
How to control humidity in marijuana cultivation
The humidity of the cannabis crop should also always be controlled by the growers. Too high a humidity can be harmful, as can too low a humidity.
Lack of moisture control in marijuana cultivation can manifest itself in fungus and other problems at different stages, from vegetative to flowering, to drying and curing buds.
It is possible to lose an entire harvest to moisture problems. Therefore, it is very important to give full attention to controlling this factor.
Recommended humidities when planting marijuana
- Clones – 70%
- Vegetative – 40% to 60%.
- Flowering – 40% to 50%.
- Late flora – 40% to 45%
Of course, this also depends on the humidity in the region where the grow is located.
Lamps for Growing Marijuana Indoors
When it comes to choosing bulbs for growing cannabis, there are different models. It will depend on how much you want to invest in your plantation.
- HQI – They are very efficient metal vapor lamps for the vegetative photoperiod.
- HPS – These are made of sodium vapor, and are usually widely used by growers. They are great for the flowering period.
- LED – LED lamps and ready-made panels with several of these lamps are being used more and more by growers because they often emit less heat, and consume less energy.
How to grow marijuana with pruning and training
The pruning is that it will help the plant to gain more branches and consequently more flowers. Training, on the other hand, can help strengthen these branches and also improve the exposure of all of them to light.
Pruning should be done in the vegetative period. So do most trainings, such as the LST.
One of the most commonly used prunings by growers is Apical Pruning, also known as top pruning. This pruning is very simple and is highly recommended at the beginning of the vegetative phase just after the first 30 days when the plant really begins to take shape.
Similar to apical pruning, only as if it had gone wrong. This is the “FIM (Fuck I Missed) top” pruning. Just leave a small portion of the growing part on the main branch
This training consists of a net on top of the plants. But it helps to separate the branches so that they cover the entire grow area, as well as helping to force the main stem to climb to the top between the nets looking for the best light.
Another training that is widely used by growers, but requires more care, is LST.
In short, LST consists of gently bending and tying the branches and stems of cannabis plants to the outside.
The goal is to leave them all at the same height so that they grow evenly. It bends and protects the plants in a way that breaks the apical dominance.
Cannabis life cycle: Stages of plant growth
Marijuana is a photoperiod plant. In other words, it has distinct phases in which it needs a certain amount of light exposure in order to enter a new period.
The vegetative (growing) period can take up to 4 months, and when it is time for marijuana to flower, it will shed small pistils (pre-flowers) between its nodes.
TIP: The longer your plant spends in the vegetative state, the higher your harvest is. However, if you don’t have much space at home, it is ideal to shorten the vegetative time, to control the growth of marijuana.
The life cycle of cannabis is well determined and easy to follow. Its photoperiod has two stages: vegetative and flowering
This period is considered the infancy and adolescence of the plant. It starts with germination and lasts until the beginning of flowering. In this phase your little plant will grow its leaves, stems, and roots. And for them to develop, a higher temperature and humidity will be very desirable.
for 18 hours straight, and then leave it for 6 hours in the dark.
If you grow outdoors, you may find it difficult to provide this much light, but the important thing is to try your best to give them plenty of light.
In the vegetative period is when the female pistils and ramifications begin to appear, which can be even more considerable if the plants receive pruning.
Flowering is the adult life of marijuana, when the plants begin to develop their flowers and further display their aroma, colors, and trichomes with THC.
At flowering, the light exposure time is reduced to 12 hours per day. So it is in a cycle of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark.
If you have any complications regarding the smell of marijuana, we recommend connecting a carbon filter, because at this stage it exudes a strong aroma.
If your plant is in an outdoor cultivation and is still in the vegetative stage, it is possible to force flowering by placing it in a dark environment when it is expecting more light. This helps her understand the change in photoperiod.
In the flowering process, you must change the nutrients and do the flush process, which is a soil washing technique. Thus, in about 3 weeks, your plant will be twice the size.
When the marijuana is at a good size, do some clean pruning, that is, remove small branches that are getting too little light at the lowest part of the plant.
Over time, you will notice some leaves yellowing and falling off, which is normal. Therefore, remove the yellow leaves to keep your crop clean.
As your flowers grow and become heavy, they can eventually topple over. So use some plastic stakes to support the plant.
Measuring pH of Cannabis cultivation
The pH corresponds to the hydrogen potential of a solution. It is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and serves to measure the degree of acidity, neutrality, or alkalinity of a given solution. And this goes for the water that will be used to water the plants.
The cannabis plant likes a slightly acidic environment around the roots. This means that all the necessary nutrients can be absorbed in sufficient quantities from the growing medium and transported to the plant.
Cultivation method (medium)
Optimum pH range
6,5 – 7,5
Hydroponics or coconut fiber
5,5 – 6,5
The optimal pH range depends on the cultivation method
If the pH value of the water or fertilizer solution is outside the ideal range, there will be problems with nutrient uptake, even if the nutrient is present.
The pH value must therefore be in the optimum range for the plant to be able to absorb all the nutrients well, depending on the cultivation method (soil, hydroponic, coco, etc.)
Measuring EC value when growing marijuana
EC means ( electrical conductivity ) but this has nothing to do with the bulbs in your cultivation. EC indicates the electrical conductivity of the water. This is given in Siemens per meter (S/m).
The EC measures the concentration of dissolved salts (ions) in the respective nutrient solution, i.e. fertilization.
The higher the proportion of salts, the higher the value and therefore the conductivity.
The ideal starting value for nutrient solutions is an EC value of 0.2 to 0.4 mS / cm. The temperature of the nutrient solution also changes the EC value during the measurement. Therefore, you should definitely buy a measuring device with built-in temperature compensation.
If you build your plants in soil, you will usually only be interested in the EC value if you suspect that the medium is salinized (i.e. over-fertilization).
How to water marijuana plants
Cannabis is a medicinal plant, which does well in drier climates. This does not mean that it should not be watered, but that it does not like excess water and can even die from it.
The pots must have enough holes for the water to drain through so that water does not accumulate on the roots. Also, feeling the weight of the pot will help you know when to water the little plants.
Cannabis roots should always have the opportunity to get air. But this doesn’t work if the soil is kept too moist for too long.
To water your plants, always water slowly and in small intervals so that the roots have enough time to absorb the water. The irrigation water should have a temperature between 20ºC and 25ºC. The hotter the water, the less oxygen it contains.
How to use fertilizer in cannabis cultivation
Everyone wants to know what to fertilize plants so that they grow as much as possible. For this, there are different cannabis fertilizers available on the market.
Cannabis has different nutritional needs in each period: vegetative and flowering. For example, nitrogen is needed most in growth, but much less in flowering. On the other hand, the need for other nutrients, such as phosphorus, increases.
Experience has shown that beginners tend to overfeed their plants the first time they grow. Over-fertilization is much more difficult to solve than under-fertilization and should be avoided at all costs. Less is more!
It is possible to make a proper fertilization by following manufacturers’ tables so that there is no mistake. With organic fertilizer this over-fertilization does not occur.
Mineral fertilizers, on the other hand, are hardly forgiving of mistakes, because they work immediately. If you add more than the plant can handle, it will react by burning off nutrients – a typical sign of over-fertilization.
When to fertilize
The time to start fertilization must be well chosen . In no case should you start fertilizing immediately after germination. Only once the seedlings reach the third branch, are they ready to be fertilized.
But what exactly is the “right” dose?
It is true that fertilizer manufacturers provide dosage tables, and in some cases, online dosage calculators. However, these are guidelines that apply only under ideal conditions.
Depending on the strain, the amount of light in the grow, and other factors such as feeding, pH/ EC values of the water and soil, the nutrient uptake can be very different.
We recommend the following rule of thumb: As a beginner, you should start with 50% of the recommended dosage for your first cultivation with mineral fertilizers, observe the plant’s reaction, and increase if necessary. When growing organically, you should start with about 70% of the scheme dosage.
How to grow marijuana and harvest it
After the whole process of germinating, planting the marijuana and nurturing it, it is time to harvest its flowers. It is important to know, when is the right time to harvest my cannabis plant?
The main characteristics of ready-to-harvest marijuana are:
Pistils Change Color – The female’s pistils change color as the plant develops, and will have other colors than the white hairs from the beginning.
Tricomes – Tricomes are the resin-filled glands that form in flowers. These take on a more yellowish (amber) coloration as they mature, becoming almost brown. Following this process makes it easy to know when to harvest.
Ideally, you should use a magnifying glass to do this.
If you have identified that it is time to harvest the flowers, don’t forget to flush, which is a cleaning of the plant. But only when mineral cultivation is done.
Drying the flowers of marijuana
Even after harvest, it is not yet time to smoke the flowers, because the flowers are still moist and too alive to be eaten.
All buds sold in legal markets or consumed by growers go through a process of drying and curing the marijuana before they are ready for smoking, bonging, putting in food, or vaporizing.
There is no point in skipping the drying step because you are anxious to smoke.
So here’s how to do the drying of marijuana at home:
- Place the branches in a dark place between 16 ºC and 22 ºC, with some ventilation;
- Hang the stems upside down on clotheslines or use drying nets;
- Let the marijuana dry for at least two weeks up to 30 days;
- When you can break one of the branches and see that it is completely dry, the step has been completed.
- It is important not to dry your buds on newspaper or cardboard.
- This can end up affecting the flavor and aroma of the plant, as well as not being aerated – which makes it difficult for the marijuana to evaporate and increases the chances of mold.
When your buds are dry, it is time to store and cure them, an essential process to remove the bushy taste of the plant. It is at this point that your marijuana will gain more flavor and aroma.
To make the marijuana cure:
- Place the Buds in a glass jar or other airtight container;
- Leave the pot in a dark environment for another 20 to 30 days;
- Open the container once in a while for the flowers to breathe a little.
- That’s it! After this period you will have done the whole process of growing the marijuana at home and now you can consume it as you see fit – smoking the marijuana, bonging it, eating it, etc.
How to grow marijuana at home forever: making clones so you don’t need seeds
If you see that your plants look nice and they are female, you can make clones of them. That’s it!
It is possible to clone cannabis plants that are already shown to be female and healthy. So it is possible to continue growing another plant with the same characteristics as the previous one.
This eliminates the need to buy more seeds, because the cultivation already starts with the clone that can also come from that grower friend who has been cultivating for a longer time.
The important thing is to do the clone at the right time, and in the right way.
Tips for growing marijuana in hiding!
For you who want to grow marijuana at home, here are some tips on how to grow it without being discovered:
- Attention to disguise the smell of marijuana. Especially in an indoor cultivation that may alert nearby neighbors or visitors. In the case of an indoor grow, a charcoal filter is essential to solve this problem. If the grow is outdoors, it is good to see how far that smell goes.
- Make sure that your outdoor cultivation cannot be seen from any of the possible angles.
- Don’t have precision scales at home. Let alone guns and other objects that might mistake you for a criminal, rather than a grower, should something happen.
- Patience and secrecy are keys to success.